Teleophthalmology is a branch of telemedicine that delivers eye care through digital medical equipment and telecommunications technology. Today, applications of teleophthalmology encompass access to eye specialists for patients in remote areas, ophthalmic disease screening, diagnosis and monitoring; as well as distant learning. Teleophthalmology may help reduce disparities by providing remote, low-cost screening tests such as diabetic retinopathy screening to low-income and uninsured patients.[75][76] In Mizoram, India, a hilly area with poor roads, between 2011 till 2015, Tele-ophthalmology has provided care to over 10000 patients. These patients were examined by ophthalmic assistants locally but surgery was done on appointment after viewing the patient images online by Eye Surgeons in the hospital 6–12 hours away. Instead of an average 5 trips for say, a cataract procedure, only one was required for surgery alone as even post op care like stitch removal and glasses was done locally. There were huge cost savings in travel etc.[77]
However, telemedicine also has a few downsides — by nature of its virtual interaction, and because of societal and technological barriers that could change in the future. The good news is, with the growing popularity and widespread acceptance of telemedicine, we’re likely to see the cons of telemedicine resolve themselves. With new technological advancements and shifting policy that increasingly supports telemedicine, we’re continuously finding ways to improve telemedicine and make it a viable, even advantageous form of healthcare delivery for many medical scenarios.
Bluetooth Wireless: Bluetooth refers to an industrial specification that applies to wireless area networks. Bluetooth technology offers a way of connecting and exchanging information between devices, including laptops, mobile phones, PCs, video game consoles, digital cameras and printers over a globally unlicensed and secure short-range radio frequency. The Bluetooth Special Interest Groups has developed and licensed the Bluetooth specifications.

Theoretically, the whole health system stands to benefit from telehealth. In a UK telehealth trial done in 2011, it was reported that the cost of health could be dramatically reduced with the use of telehealth monitoring. The usual cost of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) per cycle would be around $15,000, with telehealth it was reduced to $800 per patient.[32] In Alaska the Federal Health Care Access Network which connects 3,000 healthcare providers to communities, engaged in 160,000 telehealth consultations from 2001 and saved the state $8.5 million in travel costs for just Medicaid patients.[33] There are indications telehealth consumes fewer resources and requires fewer people to operate it with shorter training periods to implement initiatives.[10]

Video chatting has become ubiquitous with technology advances such as 4G internet speeds, low-cost smartphones and standardized phone operating systems. The advent of additional technology standards such as interoperable electronic health records (EHR), secure cloud storage (HIPAA), and wearable health trackers that can communicate with the smartphone has further incentivized consumers to jump on to the telehealth bandwagon. Perhaps the ultimate goal of telehealth is to bring continuous care to consumers while they are working or at home, years before they end up in a clinic.
Teladoc's private funding rounds included $9 million in December 2009,[10] $4 million in January 2011,[11] $18.6 million in September 2011,[12] $15 million in September 2013,[13] and $50 million in September 2014.[14] On April 29, 2015, the company submitted preliminary confidential IPO paperwork, and on May 29, 2015 it publicly filed for its IPO.[15][16] On July 1, 2015, the company went public with a New York Stock Exchange-listed IPO at $19 per share, which gave the company a market capitalization of $758 million and an enterprise value of $620 million.[17] The initial response to the IPO was good: shares surged 50% on the opening day to close at $28.50,[3] after opening at $29.90 and trading as high as $31.90.[18]

With telehealth allowing physicians to expand their coverage area, there have been questions regarding interstate medical licensing. Interstate medical licensing permits more physicians to serve individuals in underserved and rural areas, but currently, only a few states offer this. The Interstate Medical Licensure Compact helps streamline the licensing process for physicians that are interested in practising in participating states.


Telehealth is defined as the delivery and facilitation of health and health-related services including medical care, provider and patient education, health information services, and self-care via telecommunications and digital communication technologies. Live video conferencing, mobile health apps, “store and forward” electronic transmission, and remote patient monitoring (RPM) are examples of technologies used in telehealth.
It has not only expanded and improved access to healthcare services, but also increased patient engagement and enabled more efficient care models. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is one of the largest providers of telehealth services. Last year, more than 700,000 veterans accessed VA telehealth services, which include everything from mental healthcare to surgical specialist consultations. But it’s not just veterans who are benefiting.
This service removes the need for impromptu walk-in clinic visits, lengthy waiting room stays, and long lines at the pharmacy. It also creates a safe space without judgment or the need to explain your condition to multiple strangers before you receive a prescription. Our professional and experienced team takes great care to make you feel comfortable and protected as your medical needs are met and your prescription is written, sent, and filled.
Healthcare systems, policymakers, vendors, and providers alike can attest to the many gray areas within telemedicine. One particular area that requires more clarity is the legalities surrounding telemedicine. With it being an industry that is constantly growing, it has become difficult to create a concrete solution. In addition, each state follows different laws for telemedicine, which makes it increasingly difficult to keep up with it.

One of the biggest advantages of telehealth services is easy access to on-demand care. During a telemedicine consultation, a physician can inquire about symptoms, discuss treatment and determine whether a prescription is necessary. More importantly, for patients who don’t have a reliable means of transportation or who struggle with mobility challenges or disabilities that make traveling difficult, remote access can be a huge quality of life improvement. This is especially true for those living with chronic conditions for which frequent checkups are necessary. Telehealth services are also helping to fill healthcare gaps faced by rural communities across the United States — in areas where patients may have to drive for hours to get to the nearest hospital or specialist.

Healthcare systems that adopt telemedicine solutions can attest that it requires a lot of time and money. Implementing a new system requires training and sometimes staff members find it difficult to welcome this change. Practice managers, nurses, physicians, and more have to learn how to utilize the system so that practices can see the benefits. Although telemedicine is expensive in the beginning, healthcare systems should see a positive return on investment over time due to more patients and less staff.


^ Parikh, Mili; Grosch, Maria C; Graham, Lara L; Hynan, Linda S; Weiner, Myron; Shore, James H; Cullum, C. Munro (2013). "Consumer Acceptability of Brief Videoconference-based Neuropsychological Assessment in Older Individuals with and without Cognitive Impairment". The Clinical Neuropsychologist. 27 (5): 808–17. doi:10.1080/13854046.2013.791723. PMC 3692573. PMID 23607729.
State legislation determines the restrictions and often, the reimbursement rates for telemedicine services administered in that state. For instance, any state that has passed a telemedicine parity law has mandated that private payers in that state to reimburse telemedicine visits at the same rate as a comparable in-person visit. While a majority of states have now passed telemedicine parity laws, changing state legislation is often a time-consuming, unwieldy process and can have a huge impact on the telemedicine practices in that state.
Brenda Stavish has practiced medicine since 1987 and provided virtual care since 2014. In 2006, she received her Master of Nursing from Seattle Pacific University. Over the course of her career, she has worked in women's health clinics, school districts, and primary/chronic care settings. She believes in patient care that brings together the health of the mind, body, and spirit, equally. In her spare time she enjoys travel, wine tasting and cooking.

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